Nov 12, 2011
The Human Development Report 2011 Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All by UNDP shows how environmental degradation intensifies inequality through adverse impacts on the disadvantaged.
Published by: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
This year’s human development report by UNDP explores the integral links between environmental sustainability and equity and reflects that how critical this link is for people today and in generations to come.
“The point of departure is that the remarkable progress in human development over recent decades that the Human Development Report has documented cannot continue without bold global steps to reduce environmental risks and inequality. We identify pathways for people, communities, countries and the international community to promote environmental sustainability and equity in mutually reinforcing ways,” says the report.
Substantial unmet need persists worldwide, and evidence suggests that if all women could exercise reproductive choice, population growth would slow enough to bring greenhouse gas emissions below current levels.
Gender Inequality Index (GII), updated this year for 145 countries, shows how reproductive health constraints contribute to gender inequality. This is important because in countries where effective control of reproduction is universal, women have fewer children, with attendant gains for maternal and child health and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. For instance, in Cuba, Mauritius, Thailand and Tunisia, where reproductive healthcare and contraceptives are readily available, fertility rates are below two births per woman.
Seven countries – the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, San Marino, Somalia and Tuvalu were not included this year because of a lack of data.
- Norway retains its top position in UN’s annual Human Development Index spanning life expectancy, education and GDP per capita.
-The report notes that the income distribution has worsened in most of the world and reveals Latin America has the largest income inequality, although it is more equitable than sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia in life expectancy and schooling.
- A lot of the problems encountered by countries with low rankings are worsened by armed conflicts and its devastating consequences. In the DRC, the country with the lowest ranking, more than three million people died from warfare and conflict related illnesses.
- The global trends conceal widening educational inequality in South Asia and deep health inequality in Africa.
- Worsening income inequality has offset large improvements in health and education inequality, such that the aggregate loss in human development due to inequality sums to 24%.
The report proposes an emphasis on-
-Low-emission, climate-resilient strategies to align human development, equity and climate change goals.
-Public-private partnerships to catalyse capital from businesses and households.
-Climate deal-flow facilities to bring about equitable access to international public finance.
-Coordinated implementation and monitoring, reporting and verification systems to bring about long-term, efficient results and accountability to local populations as well as partners.